The following are the technical parameters and specifications of the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA).

Standard reference paper

There is a reference paper describing KAIRA. It serves as an introduction to the KAIRA facility, its technical capability and provides an open-access, standard reference paper for anyone referring to the KAIRA instrument or data in their own thesis or publication.


Location Kilpisjärvi
Country Finland
Operated by Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory
Receiver Units (RCUs) 96
Remote Station Processor (RSP) boards 12
RCU modes used 0,3,4,5,6,7
RCU modes available, but not used 1,2
Sample clock frequency 160 or 200 MHz
Raw sample type 12-bit
Subbands (frequnecy channels) 512
Beamlets 244 (12-bit mode) or
488 (8-bit mode) or
976 (4-bit mode, limited)


Array parameters

The following are the parameters on an array basis. Note that it is possible to mix parts of the array for combined experiments.

Array parameters LBA HBA
Number of antennas 48 48
Antenna type Inverted-V dipoles 16-element tiles
Polarisation per antenna 2 2
Array layout sparse, quasi-random segmented rectangular
Array physical size (approx.) 34 m diameter 30 x 50 m
Array alignment symmetrical 314 degrees
Minimum frequency 10 MHz 110 MHz
Maximum frequency 90 MHz 270 MHz
RCU modes RCU3 & RCU4 RCU5, RCU6 & RCU7
Beam-forming digital analogue in each tile
digital over array
Elevation limit 20 degrees 20 degrees
Longitude of array centre (deg East) 20.7620758 20.76103311
Latitude of array centre (deg North) 69.0707445 69.0710561
Altitude of array centre GK (m) 493.123 495.086
Altitude of array centre GRS (m) 523.371 525.336
Geocentric-X coordinate (m) 2136833.225 2136818.264
Geocentric-Y coordinate (m) 810088.740 810038.592
Geocentric-Z coordinate (m) 5935285.279 5935299.531

The array altitude is provided with two references 'GK' is to the ETRS-GK27(N60) and 'GRS' is EUREF-FIN Geographic-3D/GRS80

See also:


Data products

The following is a rough guide to the sorts of data products that are available. Note that additional facilities might be available for specialised experiments. Potential observers are encouraged to discuss their requirements with the KAIRA team to ensure optimal data for their experiment.

Data product Ext.Description
Subband statistics SST all 512 subbands, w/ min. 1-second integration
Beamlet statistics BST all beamlets, w/ min. 1-second integration
Cross correlation statistics XST single subband, w/ min. 1-second integration
Array covariance cubes ACC cross-correlations, stepped subbands, 1s integration only
Transient Buffer Board pages TBB Transient Buffer Board data
Transient Buffer Board raw data -- UDP streamed data
Beamlet raw data -- UDP streamed data

See also:
Additional information regarding technical performance is available on request.